Researchers around the world are developing more than 145 vaccines against the coronavirus, and 21 vaccines are in human trials. Vaccines typically require years of research and testing before reaching the clinic, but scientists are racing to produce a safe and effective vaccine by next year. Three of the leading candidates are Macrovue holdings: 1. Moderna Market cap. US$22.7BN Moderna is a clinical stage biotechnology company. The Company focuses on the discovery and development of messenger RNA therapeutics and vaccines. Moderna develops mRNA medicines for infectious, immuno-oncology, and cardiovascular diseases. MRNA has spent almost a decade building a world-class platform around messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics, a new class of medicines that, if ultimately successful, could have broad and disruptive potential across the whole biopharma landscape. Moderna is one of the leading contenders to produce a vaccine for COVID-19.and as one of the leading mRNA vaccine candidates the company has been getting a lot of the coronavirus vaccine headlines. They’re still heading for Phase III in July and have signed up with Catalent (who are also working with J&J) for support in vaccine production, labelling, and distribution. This is in addition to their own production work and the deal that they’ve already signed with Lonza in Europe. While many vaccines fail in the trials, Anthony Fauci, the nation’s top infectious-diseases expert, recently said he was “really optimistic” about Moderna’s vaccine. The U.S. government is investing nearly $500 million to speed up testing and prepare for making hundreds of millions of doses. Moderna has finalized the Phase 3 study protocol based on feedback from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The randomized, 1:1 placebo-controlled trial is expected to include approximately 30,000 participants enrolled in the U.S. and is expected to be conducted in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The trial’s primary endpoint will be the prevention of symptomatic COVID-19 disease; key secondary endpoints include prevention of severe COVID-19 disease (as defined by the need for hospitalization) and prevention of infection by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The Company expects dosing in the Phase 3 study to begin in July. Moderna is held in Macrovue’s The Genomics Revolution” thematic portfolio or” Vue” which is up 58.72 % over the last 12 months. (to 04/07/2020) 2. AstraZeneca Market cap. US$141Bn AstraZeneca is a UK headquartered global biopharmaceuticals company. Astra’s R&D efforts focus on small molecules, oligonucleotides, and other emerging drug platforms, as well as biologic medicines, including immunotherapies, and innovative delivery devices. AstraZeneca has three main portfolios of specialty and primary care products - (a) Oncology (20% of revenue), (b) Cardiovascular & Metabolic diseases (36% of revenue), and (c) Respiratory (23% of total revenue). The remaining 21% of revenues are generated via products in a number of other disease areas such vaccines AstraZeneca is currently developing a COVID-19 vaccine in conjunction with Oxford University using a technique involving a recombinant adenovirus vaccine for the disease called ChAdOx1. The vaccine is in a Phase II/III trial in England and Phase III trials in Brazil and South Africa. The project may deliver emergency vaccines by October. AstraZeneca has stated their total manufacturing capacity stands at two billion doses In June, the AstraZeneca CEO reportedly stated that the vaccine candidate would most likely get protection against coronavirus for at least one whole year. AstraZeneca is also testing two of its drugs for the treatment of coronavirus, with data due in coming months. The Calavi trial tests Calquence, a BTK inhibitor, in hospitalized Covid-19 patients. It's hypothesized that BTK inhibitors could help blunt the cytokine storm (over-reaction of immune response) associated with the disease that inflames organs, given the BTK pathway plays a role in the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Astra's other approach for Covid-19 is with Farxiga, with the Dare-19 trial assessing whether the drug could reduce serious complications and organ failure. AstraZeneca is held in Macrovue’s “Silver Haired Economy” thematic portfolio or “Vue” 3. Pfizer Market cap. US$191.7Bn Pfizer is a global biopharmaceutical company, which manufactures vaccines and injectable biologic medicines. It is among the world's largest pharmaceutical companies. The company has key franchises in cardiovascular, infectious diseases, inflammatory conditions and vaccines. Pfizer is best known for two famous products- Viagra (for erectile dysfunction) and Lipitor (used to lower LDL cholesterol) Industry analysts expect Pfizer to generate revenues of some US$51 billion in 2021. The company has quite a few growth drivers working in its favour over the next few years – Ibrance, Eliquis and Xejianz. Pfizer is working on developing a coronavirus vaccine with German biotech BioNTech. The Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, like the Moderna vaccine, is based on a technology called messenger RNA, which uses a key genetic messenger found in cells to create protein that the immune system then learns to attack. This effort started out with four different mRNA approaches. On July 1, they announced that all the volunteers for their Phase I/II trial produced antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, while some experienced moderate side effects such as sleep disturbances and sore arms. In an interview, Pfizer’s CEO said that he hoped his company could begin delivering vaccines in October, providing hundreds of millions of doses by the end of 2020, and then up to a billion by the end of 2021.They’re also planning for about 30,000 patients in their eventual Phase III trial, with about 100 sites (US and international) Pfizer is held in Macrovue’s “High Quality” thematic portfolio or “Vue” For more information on new trade opportunities or the Macrovue international trading platform call the team on 1300 720 292.